Human hair is a filamentary appendage of the skin, containing a huge number of different chemicals, among them – keratin protein, lipids, melanin pigment, trace elements and water. The structure of human hair is an amazing "microcosm" consisting of three complex layers interacting with each other. Human hair has a rich composition. The protein content of keratin in it reaches 80%. This substance consists mainly of amino acids and helps strengthen hair. In turn, it includes about 3% sulfur and a little arsenic. The hair composition includes a fatty substance called cholesterol, contained in an amount of 5-8%, as well as various mineral compounds, such as iron.
Ученые выяснили, что у брюнетов в волосах содержится намного больше железа, чем у блондинов. Окраска человеческих волос напрямую зависит от присутствия в них соответствующих пигментов, а также от их количества и размещения. Научное название этим пигментам – меланин. Химический состав меланина таков: белок, содержащий в себе от 8 до 15% азота, сера в количестве от 1 до 10%, кислород, железо и мышьяк.
Scientists have proved that for the production of keratin the human body has to expend a large amount of energy. Often this leads to some of its failures, which, in turn, directly affects the condition of the hair.
The structure of human hair is represented by three layers. The first of these is the cuticle. It externally resembles a spruce cone and consists of several arranged scales, growing in the direction of hair growth, and has up to 9 layers of dense keratin. It is the cuticle that is responsible for the silky and shiny human hair, because their protection is her immediate duty.
The second layer of the structure of a human hair is called a cortex. Cortex is a cortical layer containing melanin. It is the pigment of melanin that gives the hair a certain color. In turn, it is of two varieties: the first is responsible for brown and black shades and is called eomelanin, and the second – gives the hair a red color and is called pheomelanin. Cortex is the largest layer in the hair structure, occupying up to 90% of the total hair mass.
Пигмент меланин не растворяется в воде, однако распадается в концентрированных кислотах и щелочах. Окраска, вырабатываемая меланином, полностью смывается под воздействием каких-либо окислителей, например перекиси водорода.
The third layer of the structure human hair is called a medula. He also has a second name – the brain layer. It consists of non-keratinized cells and has a soft structure. The brain layer has a lot of hollow space, designed for thermal protection of the skin. It is important to know that the integrity of the shell of the medula is disrupted by prolonged exposure to sunlight, with a perm and hair dyeing.
Согласно исследованиям, на голове у человека в среднем растет 100 000 волосяных фолликулов. Из каждого фолликула на протяжении жизни вырастает до 30 волосков. При этом каждый день человек теряет до 50 волосков.
In its structure, the human hair is divided into two parts: permanent and temporary. The permanent part is the root, or the follicle. Temporary – the rod itself. It is worth noting that the rod is considered dead matter. The fact is that the direct growth of the hair (the division of its cells), from the biological point of view, occurs only in the hair follicle (in the follicle), and not beyond its limits. In turn, the hair sac has an equally complex structure and consists of a fibrous capsule, a vitreous membrane, an external and internal root vagina, a hair bulb and a matrix.